Thursday, March 12, 2020
Places in the Iliad - Towns, Cities, Rivers, and More In this list of places in The Iliad, youll find towns, cities, rivers, and some of the groups of people involved on either the Trojan or Greek side of the Trojan War. Abantes: people from Euboea (island near Athens).Abii: a tribe from the north of Hellas.Abydos: a city near Troy, on the Hellespont.Achaea: mainland Greece.Achelous: a river in northern Greece.Achelous: a river in Asia Minor.Adresteia: a town north of Troy.Aegae: in Achaea, location of Poseidons underwater palace.Aegialus: a town in Paphlagonia.Aegilips: a region of Ithaca.Aegina: an island off the Argolid.Aegium: a town ruled by Agamemnon.Aenus: a town in Thrace.Aepea: a city ruled by Agamemnon.Aesepus : a river flowing near Troy from Mt. Ida to the sea.Aetolians: those living in Aetolia, an area of north-central Greece.Aipy: a town ruled by Nestor.Aisyme: a town in Thrace.Aithices: the inhabitants of a region of Thessaly.Alesium: a town of the Epeians (in northern Peloponnese).Alope: a town in Pelasgian Argos.Alos: a town in Pelasgian Argos.Alpheius: a river in the Peloponnese: near Thryoessa.Alybe: a town of the Halizoni.Amphigenea: a town ruled by Nestor.Amydon: a town of the Pae onians (in north-eastern Greece). Amyclae: a town of Lacedaemon, ruled by Menelaus.Anemorea: a town in Phocis (in central Greece).Anthedon: a town in Boeotia.Antheia: a city ruled by Agamemnon.Antrum: a town in Thessaly.Apaesus: a town to the north of Troy.Araethyrea: a town ruled by Agamemnon.Arcadia: a region in central Peloponnese.Arcadians: inhabitants of Arcadia.Arene: a town ruled by Nestor.Argissa: a town in Thessaly.Argives: see Achaeans.Argolid: area in the north-west Peloponnese.Argos : town in northern Peloponnese ruled by Diomedes.Argos: a large area ruled by Agamemnon.Argos: a general term for the homeland of Achaeans generally (i.e., mainland Greece and Peloponnese).Argos: a region in north-east Greece, part of the kingdom of Peleus (sometimes called Pelasgian Argos).Arimi: people living in theregion where the monster Typhoeus lies underground.Arisbe: a town on the Hellespont, north of Troy.Arne: a town in Boeotia; home of Menesthius.Ascania: a region in Phrygia.Asine: a town in the Argolid.Asopus: a ri ver in Boeotia. Aspledon: a city of the Minyans.Asterius: a town in Thessaly.Athens: a town in Attica.Athos: promontory in northern Greece.Augeiae: a town in Locris (in central Greece).Augeiae: a town in Lacedaemon, ruled by Menelaus.Aulis: the place in Boeotia where the Achaean fleet assembled for the Trojan expedition.Axius: a river in Paeonia (in north-eastern Greece).Batieia: a mound in the plain in front of Troy (also called tomb of Myrine).Bear: constellation (also called the Wain): depicted on Achilles shield.Bessa: a town in Locris (in central Greece) (2.608).Boagrius: a river in Locris (in central Greece).Boebea: name of a lake andtown in Thessaly.Boeotia: a region of central Greece whose men are part of Achaean forces.Boudeum: original home of Epeigeus (Achaean warrior).Bouprasium: a region in Epeia, in northern Peloponnese.Bryseae: a town in Lacedaemon, ruled by Menelaus.Cadmeians: citizens of Thebes in Boeotia.Calliarus: a town in Locris (in central Greece).Callicolone: a hill near Troy. Calydnian Islands: islands in the Aegean Sea. Calydon: a town in Aetolia.Cameirus: a town in Rhodes.Cardamyle: a city ruled by Agamemnon.Caresus: a river from Mount Ida to the sea.Carians: inhabitants ofCaria (a region of Asia Minor), allies of the Trojans.Carystus: a town in Euboea.Casus: an island in the Aegean Sea.Caucones: people of Asia Minor, Trojan allies.Caystrios: a river in Asia Minor.Celadon: a river on the borders of Pylos.Cephallenians: troops in Odysseus contingent (part of Achaean army).Cephisia: lake in Boeotia.Cephissus: a river in Phocis.Cerinthus: a town in Euboea.Chalcis : town in Euboea.Chalcis: a town in Aetolia.Chryse: a town near Troy.Cicones: Trojan allies from Thrace.Cilicians: people ruled by EÃ «tion.Cilla: a town near Troy.Cleonae: a town ruled by Agamemnon.Cnossus: large city in Crete.Copae: a town in Boeotia.Corinth: a city on the isthmus dividing mainland Greece and the Peloponnese, part of Agamemnons kingdom, also called Ephyre.Coronea: a town in Boeotia.Cos: an island in the Aegean Sea.Cranae: an island where Paris took Helen after abducting her from Sparta. Crapathus: an island in the Aegean Sea.Cretans: inhabitants of the island of Crete, led by Idomeneus.Cromna: a town in PaphlagoniaCrisa: a town in Phocis (in central Greece).Crocylea: a region of Ithaca.Curetes: people living in Aetolia.Cyllene: a mountain in Arcadia (in central Peloponnese); home of Otus.Cynus: a town in Locris (in central Greece).Cyparisseis: a town ruled by Nestor.Cyparissus: a town in Phocis.Cyphus: a town in northern Greece.Cythera: the place of origin of Amphidamas; original home of Lycophron.Cytorus: a town in Paphlagonia.Danaans: see Achaeans.Dardanians: people from around Troy, led by Aeneas.Daulis: a town in Phocis (in central Greece).Dium: a town in Euboea.Dodona: a town in north west Greece.Dolopes: people given to Phoenix to rule by Peleus.Dorium: a town ruled by Nestor.Doulichion: an island off the west coast of mainland Greece.Echinean Islands: islands off west coast of mainland Greece.Eilesion: a town in Boeotia.Eionae: a town in the Argolid.Eleans: p eople inhabiting the Peloponnese. Eleon: a town in Boeotia.Elis: a region in Epeia, in northern Peloponnese.Elone: a town in Thessaly.Emathia: Hera goes there on the way to visit Sleep.Enetae: a town in Paphlagonia.Enienes: the inhabitants of a region in northern Greece.Enispe: a town in Arcadia (in central Peloponnese).Enope: a city ruled by Agamemnon.Epeians: part of the Achaean contingent, inhabitants of northern Peloponnese.Ephyra : a town in north-west Greece.Ephyra: alternate name for Corinth: home of Sisyphus.Ephyrians: people in Thessaly.Epidaurus: a town in the Argolid.Eretria: a town in Euboea.Erithini: a town in Paphlagonia.Erythrae: a town in Boeotia.Eteonus: a town in Boeotia.Ethiopians: Zeus visits them .Euboea: a large island close to mainland of Greece on the east:.Eutresis: a town in Boeotia.Gargaros: a peak on Mount Ida.Glaphyrae: a town in Thessaly.Glisas: a town in Boeotia.Gonoessa: a town ruled by Agamemnon.Graea: a town in Boeotia.Granicus: a river flowing from Mount Ida to the sea.Gygean Lake: a lake in Asia Minor: birth region of Iphition. Gyrtone: a town in Thessaly.Haliartus: a town in Boeotia.Halizoni: Trojan allies.Harma: a town in Boeotia.Helice: a town ruled by Agamemnon; site of worship of Poseidon.Hellas: a region of Thessaly ruled by Peleus (Achilles father).Hellenes: the inhabitants of Hellas.Hellespont: narrow stretch of water between Thrace and the Troad (separating Europe from Asia).Helos: a town in Lacedaemon, ruled by Menelaus.Helos: a town ruled by Nestor.Heptaporus: a river flowing from Mount Ida to the sea.Hermione: a town in the Argolid.Hermus: a river in Maeonia, birthplace of Iphition.Hippemolgi: distant tribe.Hire: a city ruled by Agamemnon.Histiaea: a town in Euboea.Hyades: heavenly constellation: depicted on Achilles shield.Hyampolis: a town in Phocis (in central Greece).Hyde: birthplace of Iphition (Trojan warrior).Hyle: a town in Boeotia; home of Oresbius and Tychius.Hyllus: a river in Asia Minor near the birthplace of Iphition.Hyperea: site of a spring in Thessaly.Hyperesia: a town ruled by A gamemnon. Hyria: a town in Boeotia.Hyrmine: a town in Epeia, in northern Peloponnese.Ialysus: a town in Rhodes.Iardanus: a river in the Peloponnese.Icaria: an island in the Aegean Sea.Ida: a mountain near Troy.Ilion: another name for Troy.Imbros: an island in the Aegean Sea.Iolcus: a town in Thessaly.Ionians: people of Ionia.Ithaca: an island off westcoast of Greece, home of Odysseus.Ithome: a town in Thessaly.Iton: a town in Thessaly.Las: a town in Lacedaemon, ruled by Menelaus.Lacedaemon: the area ruled by Menelaus (in south Peloponnese).Lapith: the inhabitants of a region of Thessaly.Larissa: a town near Troy.Leleges: the inhabitants of a region in northern Asia Minor.Lemnos: an island in the north-eastern Aegean Sea.Lesbos: an island in the Aegean.Lilaea: a town in Phocis (in central Greece).Lindus: a city in Rhodes.Locrians: men from Locris in central Greece.Lycastus: a town in Crete.Lycia/Lycians: a region of Asia Minor.Lyctus: a city in Crete.Lyrnessus: a city captured by Achilles, wher e he took Briseis captive. Macar: king of islands south of Lesbos.Maeander: a river in Caria (in Asia Minor).Maeonia: a region of Asia Minor south of Troy.Maeonians: inhabitants of a region of Asia Minor, Trojan allies.Magnetes: inhabitants of Magnesia in northern Greece.Mantinea: a town in Arcadia.Mases: a town in the Argolid.Medeon: a town in Boeotia.Meliboea: a town in Thessaly.Messe: a town in Lacedaemon ruled by Menelaus.Messeis: a spring in Greece.Methone: a town in Thessaly.Midea: a town in Boeotia.Miletus : a city in Crete.Miletus: a city in Asia Minor.MinyeÃ ¯us: a river in Peloponnese.Mycale: a mountain in Caria,in Asia Minor.Mycalessus: a town in Boeotia.Mycenae: a city in the Argolid ruled by Agamemnon.Myrine: see Batieia.Myrmidons: troops from Thessaly under command of Achilles.Myrsinus: a town in Epeia, in northern Peloponnese.Mysians: Trojan allies.Neritum: a mountain in Ithaca.Nisa: a town in Boeotia.Nisyrus: an island in the Aegean Sea.Nysa: a mountain associated with Dionysus.Ocalea: a town in Boeotia. Oceanus (Ocean): god of the river surrounding the earth.Oechalia: a city in Thessaly.Oetylus: a town in Lacedaemon, ruled by Menelaus.Olene: a large rock in Elis.Olenus: a town in Aetolia.Olizon: a town in Thessaly.OloÃ ¶sson: a town in Thessaly.Olympus: a mountain where the major gods (the Olympians) live.Onchestus: a town in Boeotia.Opoeis: the place where Menoetius and Patroclus came from.Orchomenus: a city in central Greece.Orchomenus: a city in Acadia.Orion: a heavenly constellation: depicted on Achilles shield.Ormenius: a town in Thessaly.Orneae: a town ruled by Agamemnon.Orthe: a town in Thessaly.Paeonia: a region in northern Greece.Panopeus: a town in Phocis (in central Greece); home of Schedius.Paphlagonians: Trojan allies.Parrhasia: a town in Arcadia.Parthenius: a river in Paphlagonia.Pedaeum: the home of Imbrius.Pedasus: a town near Troy: home of Elatos.Pedasus: a city ruled by Agamemnon.Pelasgia: a region near Troy.Pelion: a mountain in mainland Greece: home of the centa urs. Pellene: a town ruled by Agamemnon.Peneus: a river in northern Greece.Peraebians: inhabitants of a region in north-west Greece.Percote: a town north of Troy; home of Pidytes.Perea: the place where Apollo bred horses of Admetus.Pergamus: the high citadel of Troy.Peteon: a town in Boeotia.Phaestus : town in Crete.Pharis: a town in Peloponnese.Pheia: a town in the Peloponnese.Pheneus: a town in Arcadia.Pherae : city in Thessaly.Pherae: a city in southern Peloponnese.Phlegyans: fighting against Ephyreans.Phocis: territory of Phoceans (part of the Achaean contingent), in central Greece.Phrygia: a region of Asia Minor inhabited by Phrygians, allies of the Trojans.Phthia: a region in south Thessaly (in northern Greece), home of Achilles and his father Peleus.Phthires: a region in Carian Asia Minor.Phylace: a town in Thessaly; home of Medon.Pieria: Hera goes there on the way to Sleep.Pityeia: a town to the north of Troy.Placus: a mountain by Thebe, city near Troy.Plataea: a town in Boeotia.P leiades: a heavenly constellation: depicted on Achilles shield. Pleuron: a town in Aetolia; home of Andraemon, Portheus, and Ancaeus.Practius: a town to the north of Troy.Pteleum: a town ruled by Nestor.Pteleum: a town in Thessaly.Pylene: a town in Aetolia.Pylians: residents of Pylos.Pylos: area in south Peloponnese, and central city in that area, ruled by Nestor.Pyrasus: a town in Thessaly.Pytho: a town in Phocis (in central Greece).Rhesus: a river flowing from Mount Ida to the sea.Rhipe: Ã ¨town in Arcadia.Rhodes: a large island in the eastern Mediterranean.Rhodius: a river from Mount Ida to the sea: stirred up by Poseidon and Apollo to destroy the wall.Rhytium: a town in Crete.Salamis: an island off mainland Greece, home of Telamonian Ajax.Samos: an island off west coast of mainland Greece, ruled by Odysseus.Samos: an island in northern Aegean Sea.Samothrace: an island in the Aegean Sea: Poseidons view point on the battle.Sangarius: a river in Phyrgia; home of Asius.Satnioeis: a river near Troy; home of Altes.Scaean Gates: the major gates thr ough the Trojan walls. Scamander: a river outside Troy (also called the Xanthus).Scandia: the home of Amphidamas.Scarphe: a town in Locris (in central Greece).Schoenus: a town in Boeotia.Scolus: a town in Boeotia.Scyros: an island in the Aegean: Achilles son being raised there.SelleÃ ¯s: a river in north-west Greece.SelleÃ ¯s: a river north of Troy.Sesamus: a town in Paphlagonia.Sestos: a town on the north side of the Hellespont.Sicyon: a town ruled by Agamemnon; home of Echepolus.Sidon: a city in Phoenicia.Simoeis: a river near Troy.Sipylus: a mountain area where Niobe still exists.Solymi: a tribe in Lycia: attacked by Bellerophon.Sparta: a city in Lacedaemon, home of Menelaus and (originally) Helen.Spercheus: a river, father of Menesthius, after copulating with Polydora.Stratie: a town in Arcadia.Stymphelus: a town in Arcadia.Styra: a town in Euboea.Styx: a special underground river on which gods swear their oaths: Titaressus a branch of the Styx.Syme: an island in the Aegean Sea.Tarne: a city in Maeon ia.Tarphe: a town in Locris (in central Greece). Tartarus: a deep pit below the earth.Tegea: a town in Arcadia.Tenedos: an island a short distance off the coast from Troy.Tereia: a mountain to the north of Troy.Thaumachia: a town in Thessaly.Thebe: a city near Troy.Thebes: a city in Boeotia.Thebes: a city in Egypt.Thespeia: a town in Boeotia.Thisbe: a town in Boeotia.Thrace: a region north of the Hellespont.Thronion: a town in Locris (in central Greece).Thryoessa: a city in war between Pylians and Epeians.Thryum: a town ruled by Nestor.Thymbre: a town near Troy.Timolus: a mountain in Asia Minor, near Hyde.Tiryns: a city in the Argolid.Titanus: a town in Thessaly.Titaressus: a river in north-western Greece, a branch of the river Styx.Tmolus: a mountain in Meonia.Trachis: a town in Pelasgian Argos.Tricca: a town in Thessaly.Troezene: a town in the Argolid.Xanthus: a river in Lycia (Asia Minor).Xanthus: a river outside Troy, also called the Scamander, also the god of the river.Zacynthus: an island off the west coast of Greece, part of the area ruled by Odysseus. Zeleia: a town close to Troy, on lower slopes of Mt. Ida. Source: Glossary for the Iliad, by Ian Johnston
Tuesday, February 25, 2020
Non-state Actors Different From a Nation-State Actors - Essay Example This research will begin with the statement that security stability of a given country or state is significant for peace maintenance and general economic development a stable society will attract investors hence the government should ensure that there is political stability in the country. The present research has identified that national interest is the basis of any nation if it is to fulfill what they intend to accomplish and are willing to protect its territories using its citizens, ideologies or its territories. Security not only has effects on the affected nation but also to other neighboring nations. In accordance with the issues discussed in the paper, when terrorists attack a nation it is seen as a global calamity. This has led to the establishment of security bodies dealing with international overseeing of security both international at the local level. Economic development in a nation is an indicator of high standards of living and thus government and non-governmental organ izations provide services, which aims at improving the economic state of the nation. International relations and realization of a stable nation have been a concern to government and various bodies this has led to the establishment of organizations foreseeing the overall security. Non-state actors and nation-state actors are examples of organizations establish to oversee security. The two organizations were set for a core role of security they, however, differ in several ways. This paper is going to outline the difference between non-state actors and nation-state actors. Non-state actors are organizations participating in international relations; they are entitled authority to influence and bring changes despite not being citizens of to the institution in the state they are located. The entrance entitled non-state actors into the international relations eliminates the postulation of realism and other theories of international relations. These theories argue the fact that interactions existing between various states contribute significantly in the study of international activities. Non-state has a significant impact on the society they are, however, not government representatives they include large private corporations, the Red Cross and private media among others. Nation-state actors are organizations representing the nation-state they are situated, they are citizens of that nation and their main role is to represent their government. They include bureaucrats, diplomats, elected leaders, and militants. The two types of actors have the main role of serving the people of different nations they are, however, different in terms of methods of operations and roles they perform. Nation-state actors represent the state officially; non-state actors, on the other hand, do not represent the state and are there to perform duties assigned. They are members of NGOÃ¢â¬â¢s and thus responsible to their sponsors. Formation of non-state occurs at the same time in different parts of the world their formation is recognized in states their situated, nation state were formed at a different place and time in various parts of the world. Nation-state actors are responsible to the government and their actions and undertakings are controlled by the state, for example, commissions created to investigate assigned issue in a nation have its activities monitored by the government. Non-state actors are not responsible to the government of the state they are situated they are an independent body, for example, The Red Cross undertakes their role without consulting the government they just follow the set guidelines. Non-state actors do not have a host state to be considered in instilling pressure on its leaders the Irish Republic Army during its operation in Britain operated as an independent entity without influence from the host state. Nation-state, for example, defense forces is controlled by state or its p atrons in instilling pressure in performing its duties, the patron appointed give out directions and orders during the delivery of their dutie
Saturday, February 8, 2020
Islamic exam - Essay Example His arguments were clear and simple, he stated that two major sources of sharia, the Quran and Sunnah did not demand or altogether reject the caliphate, secondly there was no ijma done by the scholars upon the necessity of keeping caliphate, thirdly, caliphate had only brought disasters in the Muslim world and there were no logical arguments to re-establish it. The book also criticized rulers who used the Islamic laws in order to form a political guideline and rules for the ruling authorities. Furthermore, the book stated that the role of Prophet Muhammad was solely as religious spiritual teacher and nothing near to as a political leader. These statements called on for huge debates and unrest between different groups of Islamic world. Al-Raziq has been declared as the father of secularism of the state and not only the society, in Islamic governance. Secularism separates a state from all religious linkages and allows people from different religions to be treated equally by law regardless of religion by the ruling authority or the majority of the countryÃ¢â¬â¢s population. Al-Raziq never called keeping an Islamic government unlawful; he furthermore declared that Muslims altogether may agree to any form of government they want to keep as long it kept the common interest of the society they are ruling in their mind. This shows that altogether, al-Raziq had a very humanistic approach towards formation of government and supported democracy. Ruhollah Moosavi Khomeini was born in the early 1900Ã¢â¬â¢s and is famous for founding the first ever Islamic government called Islamic Republic or Iran. He was a politician and a revolutionary, the brains behind the Iranian Revolution that took place in 1979. After the Shah of Iran was overthrown, Khomeini became the sole ruler of the country and created a constitution solely on the bases of Islam and its
Thursday, January 30, 2020
United States Foreign Policy after 1945 Essay Ã¢â¬Å"President Clinton and IÃ¢â¬ ¦ have spoken often about the goals of American foreign policy. Boiled down, these have not changed in more than 200 years. They are to ensure the continued security, prosperity, and freedom of our people. Ã¢â¬ (Albright 1998, p. 50-64) Thus were the words of then US Secretary of State Madeleine Albright back in 1998. Fast-forward to 2006 and we have President George W. Bush remarking on America as facing a Ã¢â¬Ëchoice between the path of fear and the path of confidence. Ã¢â¬â¢ The path of fear Ã¢â¬â isolationism and protectionism, retreat and retrenchment Ã¢â¬â appeals to those who find challenges too great, failing to see in them opportunities (Bush 2006). As Bush (2006) asserts, his administration has chosen the path of confidence, leadership over isolationism and the pursuit of free and fair trade and open markets over protectionism, consistent with the tradition of American policy. Founded on two pillars Ã¢â¬â promoting freedom, justice and human dignity, and confronting the challenges of our time by leading a growing community of democracies, the present national security strategy of the Bush administration maintains the primacy of expanding the national strength of the United States resting not merely on the strength of the military but on economic prosperity and a vibrant democracy as well. Yet BushÃ¢â¬â¢s rather confrontational, militaristic approach as reflected in US foreign policy has been shown to have negative effects on AmericaÃ¢â¬â¢s relations with its long-time allies, as well as in terms of projecting its image abroad in the somewhat turbulent arena of international relations, and ultimately casting doubts whether it is really in the national interest of the United States of America. The present paper aims to illustrate how this is so, through a discussion of US foreign policy emphasizing the critical aspects of national security, free trade, democracy, world peace and human rights. II. DISCUSSION National Security It is the recognized primary duty of the United States Government to Ã¢â¬Ëprotect the American people and American interests, obligating the government to anticipate and counter threats using all resources of national power at its disposal, before these threats can do grave damageÃ¢â¬â¢ (The National Security Strategy of the United States of America 2006, p. 18). Anticipatory action taken in self-defense is considered of primary importance, particularly in view of terrorist attacks withWMD. The US-led global War on Terror after the 10/11 terrorist attacks is considered by the US State as Ã¢â¬Ëboth a battle of arms and a battle of ideasÃ¢â¬â¢ (The National Security Strategy of the United States of America 2006, p. 9). It involves both the use of military force and other instruments of national power to capture and eliminate terrorists, deny them safe haven or control of any nation, prevent their access to WMD, and the cutting off of their sources of support. The US government shall employ a comprehensive strategy involving strengthened nonproliferation efforts, i. e. proactive counter-proliferation efforts to defend against and defeat WMD and missile threats before they are unleashed; and improved protection mitigating the consequences of WMD use (The National Security Strategy of the United States of America 2006, p. 18). The proliferation of nuclear weapons is recognized as posing the greatest threat to US national security in their capacity to inflict instant loss of life on a massive scale. The strategy of choice is on denying terrorists and nuclear states access to the essential ingredient of fissile material and to deter any transfer of nuclear material from states having this capability to rogue states and terrorists. The 9/11 terror attacks proved the vulnerability of the United States, acclaimed lone superpower of the world, to terrorism. In a bid to safeguard national security, the Bush administration declared a global war on terror, which undoubtedly leaves many fears of retaliatory attacks from terror groups. It is important to note that the problem of terrorism is a thorny issue and a multi-faceted one, involving not merely differences in religion and ideology but poverty and social grievances, among others, which are recognized by the National Security Strategy. Free Trade The promotion of free and fair trade has long been a tenet of American foreign policy as greater economic freedom is viewed as ultimately inseparable from political liberty (The National Security Strategy of the United States of America 2006, p. 25). Taking into consideration economic power as empowering individuals, which in turn leads to the demand for greater political freedom promoting greater economic opportunity and prosperity, the market economy is viewed as the single most effective economic system and the greatest antidote to poverty. The US promotes free and fair trade, open markets, a stable financial system, the integration of the global economy, and secure, clean energy development as the means towards economic liberty and prosperity. Economic freedom is viewed by the present administration as a Ã¢â¬Ëmoral imperative,Ã¢â¬â¢ with the Ã¢â¬Ëliberty to create and build, buy, sell and own property fundamental to human nature and foundational to a free societyÃ¢â¬â¢ (The National Security Strategy of the United States of America 2006, p. 27). Economic freedom creates diversified centers of power and authority which places limits on the reach of governments, expanding the free flow of ideas, exposing people to new ways of thinking and living and ultimately giving more control over their own lives. Even as most of the world affirms the appeal of economic liberty, it is the view of the present government that too many nations still hold fast to the Ã¢â¬Ëfalse comforts of subsidies and trade barriersÃ¢â¬â¢ which stifles growth in developed countries (The National Security Strategy of the United States of America 2006, p. 27). The US promotes the vision of a global economy welcoming to each and every nation-participant and encourages the voluntary exchange of goods and services. Issues on the establishment of a truly level playing field among developed and developing nations, the continuing significance and evolving roles of the post-World War multilateral institutions such as the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund continue to haunt the rounds of free trade negotiations, serving as effective obstacles towards the full globalization and integration of free markets all over the world. Democracy It is the policy of the United States to seek and support democratic movements and institutions in every nation and culture, with the ultimate goal of ending tyranny in our world (The National Security Strategy of the United States of America 2006, p. 1). The avowed goal of US statecraft then is Ã¢â¬Å"help create a world of democratic, well-governed states that can meet the needs of their citizens and conduct themselves responsibly in the international systemÃ¢â¬ (The National Security Strategy of the United States of America 2006, p. 1) through leading the international effort to end tyranny and promote effective democracy. Closely related to the goal of ending tyrannies, the US recognizes its role in helping newly free nations in the building of effective democracies Ã¢â¬â states which respect human dignity, are accountable to their citizens, and responsible towards their neighbors. Democracy is concretely expressed through elections wherein individuals and parties committed to the equality of all citizens, minority rights, civil liberties, voluntary and peaceful transfer of power, and the peaceful resolution of differences can freely participate, as well as the presence of institutions which protect individual liberty, independent media, freely competing political associations and political parties, an independent judiciary, professional legal establishment, and an honest and competent police force. This commitment to the promotion of freedom is coursed through several tactics varying among countries reflecting the culture and history of its people, from vocal and visible steps on behalf of immediate change to more quiet support laying the foundation for future reports. The US shall lead and call on other nations in a common international effort, yet it does not hesitate to act on its own if need be. Grave problems arise when the US is seen as intervening in what other countries may perceive as largely domestic affairs which does not concern Washington, and the perception of democracy as a Western imposition even in non-Western countries, fueling resentment and claims of on-going cultural imperialism in the promotion of American values even in still-largely traditional societies. World Peace Conflict among nations can arise from a variety of causes Ã¢â¬â external aggression, competing claims, internal revolt, poor governance, ethnic and religious differences, among others Ã¢â¬â which if left unaddressed, can eventually result to humanitarian disasters, the failure of states, and ungoverned areas which can become harbor terrorists. To address this, the Bush administration seeks to implement three levels of engagement: (1) conflict intervention; (2) post-conflict stabilization; and (3) reconstruction (The National Security Strategy of the United States of America 2006, p. 15). In terms of ensuring peace in an often tumultuous international arena of competing nations, the most effective long-term measure for conflict prevention and resolution is the promotion of democracy (The National Security Strategy of the United States of America 2006, p. 15). This is in line of the view that though effective democracies may still have disputes, they are more equipped to solve such differences through peaceful means, either bilaterally or in cooperation with other international institutions, formations or regional states. As some conflicts pose such grave threats to the broader national interests, conflict intervention may be deemed necessary to restore peace and stability, particularly in circumstances wherein the international community does not have enough trained military forces capable of performing peace-keeping missions. This has led to close the government closely working with the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) in improving state capacities for intervention in conflict situations, and support to the UN reforms seeking to improve its ability to carry out peacekeeping missions characterized by enhanced accountability, oversight and results-based management practices (The National Security Strategy of the United States of America 2006, p. 16). And the third level of engagement takes into consideration the need for post-conflict stabilization and reconstruction once peace has been restored. History has borne witness to success as resulting from the early establishment of strong local institutions, e. g. a functional judiciary and penal system, effective police systems, and enhancing governance capacity critical to the establishment of the rule of law and a free market economy, on the assumption that these in turn would provide the key to long-term stability and prosperity. It is also interesting to note that the pursuit of American interests is to be accomplished within the framework of cooperative relationships, particularly with its Ã¢â¬Ëoldest and closest friends and alliesÃ¢â¬â¢ (The National Security Strategy of the United States of America 2006, p. 35). Another priority is the prevention of any re-emergence of the great power rivalries which had divided the world in previous eras, in such a way that these new approaches are flexible enough to permit effective action even in the face of differences of opinions among friends, yet strong enough to confront challenges. These principles guide American international relations, notably within its own hemisphere (the Western Hemisphere) considered the Ã¢â¬Ëfrontline of defense of American national securityÃ¢â¬â¢ (The National Security Strategy of the United States of America 2006, p. 37) which is envisioned to be fully democratic, bound together in good will, security cooperation and opportunity for all its citizens to prosper. Concretely, the goal includes strengthening relations with regional partners to make multilateral institutions, e. g. the Inter-American Development Bank, more effective and better able in fostering concerted action addressing threats to the regionÃ¢â¬â¢s stability, prosperity, security or democratic progress. The Bush administration has identified key threats to international security in the form of rogue states, and its taking on a hard-line policy towards these states which could possibly fuel resentment and strong feelings of anti-Americanism among their peoples. World peace does not appear any less elusive in the contemporary period despite the end of the Cold War and the bipolarization of the world, as poverty, social inequality, racial, ethnic and religious differences continue to create social divides among people. Human Rights Tyranny is defined as the Ã¢â¬Ëcombination of brutality, poverty, instability, corruption, and suffering forged under the rule of despots and despotic systemsÃ¢â¬â¢ (The National Security Strategy of the United States of America 2006, p. 3), as is the case under the nations of the Democratic PeopleÃ¢â¬â¢s Republic of Korea, Iran, Syria, Cuba, Belarus and Burma, which treated the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s interest in freedomÃ¢â¬â¢s expansion and immediate security threats as well, i. e. their pursuit of weapons of mass destruction (The National Security Strategy of the United States of America 2006. The goal of human rights promotion is closely related to the pursuit of democracy, world peace, and the promotion of global free trade. This becomes particularly acute when one considers political liberties and democratic institutions as vital towards attaining greater economic freedom, opportunities and prosperity in the context of a market economy. Chomsky (1982) notes that the US is no more engaged in programs of international good will than any other state has been as foreign policy is designed and implemented by narrow groups deriving their power from the domestic sources of state capitalism and control over the domestic economy. Within the nation-state, the effective Ã¢â¬Ënational interestÃ¢â¬â¢ is by and large articulated by those who control the central economic institutions, leaving the formulation of its disguise for the technocratic and policy-oriented intelligentsia. Human rights violations have been charged against US soldiers in occupied territories as well as among those in peace-keeping missions. Specific cases of human rights violations have been documented in US bases in South Korea, Japan, and in the former US bases in the Philippines. The preferential treatment for and custody of US soldiers in case of trial and conviction is also a major sore point between the US government and the Ã¢â¬ËhostÃ¢â¬â¢ countries.
Tuesday, January 21, 2020
Anorexia Nervosa Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã In America, girls are given the message at a very young age that in order to be happy and successful, they must be thin. Given the value which society places on being thin, it is not surprising that eating disorders are on the increase. Every time you walk into a store, you are surrounded by the images of emaciated models that appear on the covers of fashion magazines. Thousands of teenage girls are starving themselves daily in an effort to attain what the fashion industry considers to be the Ã¢â¬Å"idealÃ¢â¬ figure. The average model weighs 23% less than the average woman. Maintaining a weight 20% below your expected body weight fits the criteria for the emotional eating disorder known as anorexia. Most models, according to medical standards, fit into the category of being anorexic (Thompson, Colleen). Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Anorexia has been known and recognized by doctors for at least 300 years. Most researchers agree that the number of patients with this life threatening disease is increasing at an alarming rate. The Rice Counseling Center defines anorexia as Ã¢â¬Å"an emotional disorder characterized by an intense fear of becoming obese, lack of self-esteem and distorted body image which results in self-induced starvationÃ¢â¬ . In accordance with information given by the Counseling Center at the University of Lawson 2 Virginia, the development of this disease generally begins at the age of 11 or 18. Significantly, these ages coincide with new phases of a girlÃ¢â¬â¢s life, the commencement and ending of adolescence. Recent estimates suggest that out of every 200 American girls between this age span, one will develop anorexia to some degree. The disease develops over a period of time during which the sufferer changes her eating patterns from normal or near normal to a very restricted diet (S.C.A.R.E.D. Website). This process can take anywhere from months to years. Clinically, an anorexic is diagnosed by having a body weight 20% below the expected body weight of a healthy person at the same age and height of the eating disorder patient. The anorexic often becomes frightened of gaining weight and even of food itself. The patient may feel fat, even though their body weight is well below the normal weight for their height. Some also feel they do not deserve pleasure out of life and will deprive themselves of situations offe... ...ily, friends, and the reasons she may have fallen into a pattern of self-starvation. As a patient learns more about her condition, she is often more willing to try to help herself recover. In treating anorexia nervosa, it is extremely important to remember that immediate success does not guarantee a permanent cure. Sometimes, even after successful hospital treatment and return to normal weight, patients suffer relapses. Follow-up therapy lasting three to five years is recommended if the patient is to be completely cured (Cove, Judy). Lawson 6 Works Cited Thompson, Colleen. Ã¢â¬Å"Society and Eating Disorders.Ã¢â¬ Mirror Mirror 19, October 1998. Online. Available http://www.mirror-mirror.org/society.htm Accessed 23, October 1998. Saunders, Janice. Ã¢â¬Å"Anorexia and Bulimia.Ã¢â¬ S.C.A.R.E.D. Online. Available http://www.geocities.com/HotSprings/Spa/3901/index.html Accessed 23, October 1998. Cove, Dr. Judy. Ã¢â¬Å"Anorexia Nervosa General Information.Ã¢â¬ Mental Health Net Online. Available http://www.cmhc.com Accessed 23, October 1998. Pearson, Nanett. Ã¢â¬Å"A Personal Recovery Story: Starving for Attention.Ã¢â¬ Attention Online. Available http://www.laureate.com/attention.html Accessed 31, October 1998.
Monday, January 13, 2020
The varieties about women's roles were constructed In ways that have been altered or erased for social and political purposes. The roles of black women were undermined during slavery and Hawaiian women's roles were taken away after colonialism. Women's roles should be recognized because it makes a significant contribution to decentralization and resistance. The erasure of women's roles have been constructed In favor of white supremacists and colonists, thus, keeping knowledge about women's roles away from the public view.This week's readings reflect the counter-forces that fight against this trend. The two examples discussed In this paper will help demonstrate how the recognition of women's roles make significant contributions to decentralization and resistance. Black women's role during slavery was undermined In the Monomania Report. Angela Davis critiques the history of slavery aspect of the Monomania report because it fails to recognize the significance of black women's role in sl avery claiming that matriarchy comes from the legacy of slavery.Davis challenges this Idea by arguing that matriarchy did not come from slavery since matriarchy Implies power, which enslaved black women did not have. Davis indicates that although black women did not have power of the law/state, they created their own modes of power. She also indicates the reason why black women played a significant role during slavery is because they made resistance possible for others in the African American enslaved communities. Since women had the double burden of working in the fields and doing domestic work, they became the maintainers of the slave headquarters.This allowed women to recognize how much the master depended on them, giving women the consciousness of resistance. This is an example of how knowledge Is distorted In he Monomania report since It falls to address the truth about women's roles In slavery and falsely concludes that black families are unstable because they are matrilineal. Recognizing black women's roles during slavery is imperative to eradicate the myth that black families are unstable because they are matrilineal and how they made resistance possible for others.Another example of the recognition of women's roles is the inclusion of indigenous feminism. Lisa Keelhauled Hall indicates the importance of recognizing the erasure of indigently, specifically Hawaiian women in the united States as a result of colonialism. She critiques the conceptual erasure of U. S. Imperialism In the Pacific. The erasure of Hawaii in contemporary understandings of the united States, and the racial erasure of indigenous peoples.She argues indigenous feminism should counter these erasures Ã¢â¬Å"because colonization relies on forced forgetting and erasure, the need to bring the past forward Into our consciousnessÃ¢â¬ Is Important for decentralization (Hall, 279). Although Hawaiian women's roles were unrecognized, Hall contends that Hawaiian women held significant power until the colonists stripped political power and voting rights from them. Additionally, Hawaiian women were aced with the imposition of Christianity, monogamy, and heterosexual marriage.Indigenous feminism Is Important to the process of decentralization for Hawaiian women and other indigenous women because it Ã¢â¬Å"grapples with the ways patriarchal 1 OFF analyzing the sexual and gendered nature of the process of colonizationÃ¢â¬ (Hall, 278). Although women's roles were constructed in ways that were altered or erased, which favored white supremacists and colonists, Hall and Davis produced scholarly works that enabled people to recognize that women's roles made a significant contribution to the process of decentralization and resistance.
Sunday, January 5, 2020
Pornography and the Effect on Aggressive Behavior It is without compromise that pornographies have been in existence since time immemorial. It is however valid to argue that technological advancements have spurred the rate at which pornographies are created and circulated among individuals in the current world placing. It has been common claim that pornographies have largely contributed to the development of antisocial and aggressive behaviors among the viewers. This paper will however contradict these common social perceptions about pornographies and provide explicit defense for the need to continued existence of pornographies within our societies. The paper will also research on the position of American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU) with regard to issues concerning pornographies. Pornography and the Effect on Aggressive Behavior Pornography has been blamed for causing sexual misconduct and antisocial behaviors among teenagers. In addition, pornographic pictures and videos have received unending accusations for contributing to increased raping cases as well as aggressive behaviors among the viewers. However, the above perceptions about pornographies can be termed as mere illusions without significant support and proof. Whether pornographies are present or absent, aggressive sexual behaviors still survives in our societies. We will write a custom essay sample on Pornography and the efferct on aggressive behavior or any topic specifically for you Only $17.96 $11.86/pageorder now The urge to rape or engage in rape depends on individualÃ¢â¬â¢s sexual orientation and control, and more on the psychological makeup of a person. For that case, it is hard to prove that when individuals watch pornographies then their likelihood to rape is increased. This is because some culprits of raping have inborn and unethical lusts on women. Other aggressive sexual behaviors such as forced masturbation among students in mixed schools, does not entirely rely on watched pornographies, but may occur due the parties attaining adolescent stage. Watching pornographies is in fact a boost to healthy relationship among couples and sexual partners. Watching pornographies humbles sexual partners as it provides the parties with more explicit and perfect styles of playing serious sex to the satisfaction of the all the parties. Malamuth, Koss and Addison (2000) explicate that when watching the videos and pictures of porn, sexual partners learn the most appropriate postures, the most appropriate body languages and the level of maturity required during sexual intercourse to ensure complacency of every partner upon sexual intercourse. Watching pornographies provides the rare clues about the emerging regions that are sensitive to arousals.